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4.4 Honour Based Violence and Abuse: Guidance

Contents

Definition

4.4.1

The National Police Chief Council's definition of honour-based abuse (also called honour-based violence) is: “An incident or crime involving violence, threats of violence, intimidation, coercion or abuse (including psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional abuse), which has or may have been committed to protect or defend the honour of an individual, family and/or community for alleged or perceived breaches of the family and/or community’s code of behaviour.” 

4.4.2

These are violent crimes in which predominantly women are killed for perceived immoral behaviour, which is deemed to have breached the honour code of a family or community, causing shame. Whilst women and girls are the most common victims of honour-based violence, it can also affect men and boys.

4.4.3

Professionals should be alert to the fact that in cases of honour-based violence the partner can also be at risk and therefore appropriate consideration should be given to their safety and welfare.

4.4.4

Professionals should respond to honour-based violence in a similar way to cases of domestic abuse and forced marriage:

  • facilitate disclosure.
  • develop individual safety plans.
  • ensure the child’s safety by according them confidentiality in relation to the rest of the family.
  • complete individual risk assessments.

Recognition

4.4.5

A child who is at risk of honour-based violence is at significant risk of physical harm (including being murdered) and/or neglect, and may also suffer significant emotional harm through the threat of violence or witnessing violence directed towards a sibling or other family member.

4.4.6

Honour-based violence cuts across all cultures and communities, and cases encountered in the UK have involved families from Turkish, Kurdish, Afghani, South Asian, African, Middle Eastern, South and Eastern European communities. This is not an exhaustive list.

4.4.7

The perceived immoral behaviour which could precipitate honour-based violence include, but are not limited to:

  • inappropriate make-up or dress
  • the existence of a boyfriend
  • kissing or intimacy in a public place
  • rejecting a forced marriage
  • pregnancy outside of marriage
  • being a victim of rape
  • inter-faith relationships
  • leaving a spouse or seeking divorce
  • identifying as LGBT+.
4.4.8

Honour-based crimes are often the planned culmination of a series of events over a period of time. There tends to be a degree of premeditation, family conspiracy and a belief that the victim deserved to die.

4.4.9

Incidents, in addition to those listed above, which may precede a murder include:

  • Physical abuse.
  • Emotional abuse, including:
    • house arrest and excessive restrictions
    • denial of access to the telephone, internet, passport and friends
    • threats to kill.
  • Pressure to go abroad. Victims are sometimes persuaded to return to their country of origin under false pretences, when in fact the intention could be to kill them.
4.4.10

Children sometimes truant from school to obtain relief from being controlled at home by relatives. They can feel isolated from their family and social networks and become depressed, which can on some occasions lead to self-harm or suicide.

4.4.11

Families may feel shame long after the incident that brought about dishonour occurred, and therefore the risk of harm to a child can persist. This means that the young person’s new boy/girlfriend, baby (if pregnancy caused the family to feel ‘shame’), associates or siblings may be at risk of harm.

4.4.12

Victims from black or ethnic minority groups, where the violence is perpetrated by extended family members or relate to forced marriage issues, may be more isolated due to religious and/or cultural pressures, language barriers, having no recourse to public funds or fear of bringing shame to their ‘family honour’.

4.4.13

Victims with a learning or physical disability may be more vulnerable to violence. Vulnerabilities may include:

  • dependency on a carer
  • financial dependency
  • social isolation

Disclosure and response

4.4.14

When receiving a disclosure from a child, professionals should recognise the seriousness/immediacy of the risk of harm.

4.4.15

For a child to report to any agency that they have fears of honour-based violence in respect of themselves or a family member requires a lot of courage, and trust that the professional/agency they disclose to will respond appropriately. Under no circumstances should the agency allow the child’s family or social network to find out about the disclosure, so as not to put the child at further risk of harm.

4.4.16

Authorities in some countries may support the practice of honour-based violence, and the child may be concerned that other agencies share this view, or that they will be returned to their family. The child may be carrying guilt about their rejection of cultural/family expectations. Furthermore, their immigration status may be dependent on their family, which could be used to dissuade them from seeking assistance.

4.4.17

Where there is a disclosure of suspicion of honour-based violence, staff in all agencies/organisations should respond immediately by referring to social care First Response Team, or where there is imminent risk, directly to the police.

Staff in all agencies should make full records of any conversation with the young person and ensure that they complete an accurate account of what is said.

4.4.18

Referring agencies should make an assessment of risk of harm using a dedicated assessment tool e.g. DASH.

4.4.19

The social care and police response should include:

  • seeing the child immediately in a secure and private place
  • seeing the child on their own
  • explaining to the child the limits of confidentiality
  • asking direct questions to gather enough information to make a referral to Children’s Social Care and the police, including recording the child’s wishes
  • encouraging and/or helping the child to complete a personal risk assessment
  • developing an emergency safety plan with the child
  • agreeing a means of discreet future contact with the child explaining that a referral to Children’s Social Care and the police will be made
  • record all discussions and decisions (including rationale if no decision is made to refer to Children’s Social Care)
  • if the young person is under 18 years of age, refer them to the designated person with responsibility for safeguarding children and activate local safeguarding procedures. A strategy meeting should be held following this referral. The strategy meeting will include representatives from agencies involved with the young person and this would include children's services, health, police and education as an example. It is important that the person who has identified the concern is available to attend this meeting. The strategy meeting allows all information to be shared and safeguarding actions to be put in place.
4.4.20

Professionals should not approach the family or community leaders, share any information with them or attempt any form of mediation. In particular, members of the local community should not be used as interpreters.

4.4.21

All multi-agency discussions should recognise the police responsibility to initiate and undertake a criminal investigation as appropriate.

4.4.22

Multi-agency planning should consider the need for providing suitable safe accommodation for the child, as appropriate.

4.4.23

If a child is taken abroad, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office may assist in repatriating them to the UK. 

Related Policies, Procedures, and Guidance

This page is correct as printed on Tuesday 17th of September 2019 02:26:03 AM please refer back to this website (http://bscb.procedures.org.uk) for updates.
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