6.4 Children of Parents who have a Learning Difficulty or Disability
A learning disability is a permanent life-long condition, which is defined by the Department of Health and Social Care as:
A reduced ability to cope independently (impaired social functioning), which started before adulthood, with a lasting effect on development.
However, many people who have a diagnosed learning disability prefer to use the term 'learning difficulty'. They feel that the term 'learning disability' implies that they cannot learn at all.
There is a far wider group of parents with learning difficulties, who do not have a diagnosis and would not generally fit the eligibility criteria for support services in their own right. These parents often recognise that they need practical support and help to enable them to learn to be the best parents possible.
There is no direct link between IQ and parenting ability above the IQ level of 60. Parents with learning difficulties face a wide range of barriers to bringing up their children successfully.
The needs of parents with learning disabilities include the ability to meet a child's needs, as well as their own; personal care of the child; preparation of meals and drinks; attending to the child's health needs; parental involvement in indoor and outdoor play; support in education.
Professionals undertaking assessments must recognise that a learning disability is a lifelong condition. Assessments must therefore consider the implications for the child as they develop throughout childhood and will need to re-evaluate the child's circumstances from time to time. Children may exceed their parent's intellectual and social functioning at a relatively young age.
Parents with learning disabilities are at risk of falling through the gap between the provision of services for children and the provision of services for adults, if the services fail to coordinate effectively. As a result, some parents may miss out on support services that they need in order to prevent problems from arising. Early help and Family support services should be considered at an early stage in order to prevent future risks to the child and to promote the child's welfare. Early Help in Buckinghamshire is now provided by the Family Support Service.
The context in which people with learning disabilities have children is one that has been dominated by the perception of risk and the assumption that parenting will not be good enough. Adults with learning disabilities may need support to develop the understanding, resources, skills and experience to meet the needs of their children. This will be particularly necessary if they are experiencing additional difficulties such as domestic violence, poor physical or mental health, having a disabled child, substance misuse, social isolation, poor housing or poverty.
Neglect through acts of omission rather than commission is a frequently stated concern, ultimately it is the quality of care experienced by the child which determines whether the parenting capacity can be regarded as sufficient and whether or not a referral should be made for an assessment by Children's social care.
Similarly, women with learning disabilities may be Adults at Risk and targets for men who wish to gain access to children for the purpose of sexually abusing them.
Children may end up taking increasing responsibility for caring for themselves and, at times, for their siblings, parents and other family members.
Protection and Action to be Taken
Where a parent with learning disabilities appears not to be able to meet her/his child's needs, a referral should be made to Children's social care in line with the Referrals Procedure, and they have a responsibility to assess need and where necessary, offer supportive or protective services.
Children's social care, Adult Services and other agencies must undertake a multi-disciplinary assessment using the Assessment Framework triangle, including specialist learning disability and other assessments, to determine whether or not the parents with learning disabilities require support to enable them to care for the child or whether the level of learning disability is such that it will impair the health or development of the child for an adult with learning disabilities to be the primary carer.
All agencies must recognise that their primary concern is to ensure the promotion of the child's welfare, including their protection.
Things to consider when taking action: -
Parents with learning difficulties may need long-term support, which will need to change and adapt as the developmental needs of a child changes as they grow.
Resources will need to be adapted to work with parents may find it difficult to use written information. They may face a multiplicity of other difficulties and there is the potential for a wide range of professionals to be involved in their lives.
The safeguarding system can appear very daunting for parents with learning difficulty, and consideration should therefore be given to supporting them throughout this process, including the use of an advocate.